Table 8. Cross-community analogs: Heliconiini vs. flea beetle species sharing host plantsand habitats
Heliconiini species Flea Beetle species Host plant species HCN
H. cydno* Monomacra violacea adults all species* Var Forest; edge
H. charithonia Red Ptocadica
M. violacea adults and larvae
P. lobata (hooked trichome defense) Low Forest gaps; edge
H. sara (sequesters epivolkenin and taraktophyllin; makes sarauriculatin)
H. erato? (in greenhouse)
Parchicola DF2
Ptocadica bifasciata
P. auriculata Var Second growth;
H. erato
H. hecalesia?
Dryas iulia

Parchicola DF2
Ptocadica bifasciata
M. chontalensis
D. quinquelineata

P. biflora Var Second growth;
Josia frigida (rare Dioptinae moth)
H. erato (rarely used)
rarely used (except M. violacea on flowers) P. costaricensis
rare at La Selva
High Second growth
Dryas iulia (second growth) none P. arbelaezii High Edge
H. erato (this host rarely used at La Selva) none P. megacoriacea Slow
Edge; second growth
H. hecale
Black-tibia Parchicola
Yellow Ptocadica
P. vitifolia
Low Forest; edge
H. ismenius? Black-tibia Parchicola? P. quadrangularis?
rare at La Selva
Med Edge?, widely cultivated
H. doris (unknown; probably sequesters)

Black-tibia Parchicola Yellow Ptocadica

P. ambigua
Var Forest; edge
Heliconius melpomene (sequesters gynocardin) Yellow-tibia Parchicola
Yellow Ptocadica
P. oerstedii Low Second growth; edge
H. melpomene (this host rarely used at La Selva) none P. menispermifolia High Second growth; edge
H. sapho (probably sequesters epivolkenin and taraktophyllin) Red Pedilia
P. pittieri High Forest
*H. cydno can not survive on P. lobata